1               Heat, energy that is transferred from one body to another as the result of a difference in temperature. If two bodies at different temperatures are brought together, energy is transferred—i.e., heat flows—from the hotter body to the colder. The effect of this transfer of energy usually, but not always, is an increase in the temperature of the colder body and a decrease in the temperature of the hotter body. A substance may absorb heat without an increase in temperature by changing from one physical state (or phase) to another, as from a solid to a liquid (melting), from a solid to a vapour (sublimation), from a liquid to a vapour (boiling), or from one solid form to another (usually called a crystalline transition). The important distinction between heat and temperature (heat being a form of energy and temperature a measure of the amount of that energy present in a body) was clarified during the 18th and 19th centuries. 


2            endothermic



endothermic (adjective)

  1. chemistry

    (of a reaction or process) accompanied by or requiring the absorption of heat.The opposite of exothermic.

    • (of a compound) requiring a net input of heat for its formation from its constituent elements.

  2. zoology

    (of an animal) dependent on or capable of the internal generation of heat.

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3              Adiabatic (from Greek a- "not", –dia- "through, batos "passable") calorimetry is calorimetry in which no heat is exchanged with the surroundings. 


4             Temperature is a measure of how hot or cold something is; specifically, a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object, which is a type of energy associated with motion.